2022 The Ultimate Guide to Apparel Fabrics

The clothes worn by modern production on informal social occasions are mostly made of high-quality blended apparel fabrics. And pure cotton, pure wool, pure silk, pure linen, and other natural fabrics have been reduced to general fabrics because of the shortcomings of natural fabrics such as easy wrinkle and easy deformation, and are less used as high-end clothing materials. Blended fabrics have the characteristics of natural fabrics, which are sweat-absorbing, breathable, soft, and comfortable, and absorb the advantages of chemical fiber fabrics, such as durability, drape and crispness, good luster, and bright colors.

Clothing fabric classification

General clothing fabrics are divided into two series:

Woven fabrics: mainly used for outerwear and shirts of clothing.

Knitted fabrics: Underwear and sportswear of clothing, but due to the development of science and technology, knitted fabrics have also developed to be thick and stiff, gradually externalizing knitted underwear, and weaving of knitted fabrics has become a supplement to outerwear.

The data shows that the rise in cotton prices has led to an increase in the cost of the entire production chain, and a series of products in the production chain have to increase in price, which just gave birth to new opportunities for fabrics in the apparel industry. On the stage, these bio-based fabrics save more water and pesticides than cotton in the production process, which meets the needs of consumers and the whole society for low-carbon and environmental protection.

Clothing made of these natural animal and plant materials is called “ecological clothing”. “Ecological clothing” is gradually becoming a new trend in the fashion field. They not only reflect the environmental awareness of design and color design in terms of style and design but also use non-polluting natural raw materials from fabrics to buttons, zippers, and other accessories; from the production of raw materials to processing, they are completely from the perspective of protecting the ecological environment, avoiding the use of chemical printing and dyeing raw materials and resins and other environmentally damaging substances.

Ecological clothing is basically the same concept as green clothing, but there are also slight differences: “green clothing” is mainly green textiles and ecological clothing. The “green textiles” that have been developed and marketed internationally generally have various functions such as deodorization, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, anti-ultraviolet, anti-radiation, and humidification.

It can be seen from the above that the design of clothing, regardless of fabric or style, not only considers whether it is comfortable and fashionable but more importantly, it is combined with environmental protection. Low-carbon environmental protection is the development trend of clothing fabrics in the future.

1. Apparel fabrics are classified by structure

Clothing is composed of three elements: style, color, and fabric. The material is the most basic element. Clothing materials refer to all the materials that make up clothing, which can be divided into clothing fabrics and clothing accessories. Here, we mainly introduce some knowledge of clothing fabrics to you.

What is the fabric count:

The count is a way of expressing yarn, which is usually expressed by the inch count (S) in the “fixed weight system” (this calculation method is divided into metric count and inch count), that is: in the official resurgence Under the condition of high rate (8.5%), the number of skeins with a length of 840 yards per skein in a pound of spun yarn is the number of counts. The count is related to the length and weight of the yarn.

What is Clothing Fabric Density:

Density refers to the number of warp and weft yarns arranged per square inch, called warp and weft density. It is generally expressed as “the number of warps * the number of wefts”. Several common densities such as 11090, 12868, 6578, 13373, indicate that the warp yarns per square inch are 110, 128, 65, and 133 respectively; the weft yarns are 90, 68, and 78, 73. Generally speaking, high support is the premise of high density.

2. Fabric application

Knitted fabric: According to the weaving method, there are two types of weft knitted fabrics and warp knitted fabrics.

Weft knitting

Usually, low-elastic polyester yarn or special-shaped polyester yarn, nylon yarn, cotton yarn, wool yarn, etc. are used as raw materials, and plain stitch, variable plain stitch, rib plain stitch, double rib plain stitch, jacquard, terry, etc. are used. Knitted on various weft knitting machines. It has many varieties, generally has good elasticity and extensibility, the fabric is soft, firm, and wrinkle-resistant, the hair type is strong, and it is easy to wash and dry. However, its hygroscopicity is poor, the fabric is not stiff enough, and it is easy to fall off and curl.
There are mainly the following varieties:

  1. Polyester yarn-dyed knitted fabric: The fabric is bright in color, beautiful in color, harmonious in color matching, dense and thick in texture, clear in texture, strong in wool shape, and has a tweed style similar to wool fabric. Mainly used for men’s and women’s tops, suits, windbreakers, vests, skirts, padded jacket fabrics, children’s clothing, etc.;
  2. Polyester knitted labor fabric: This kind of fabric is compact and thick, firm and wear-resistant, stiff and elastic. If the raw material is core-spun yarn containing spandex, it can be woven into elastic knitted denim with better elasticity. Mainly used for trousers for men’s and women’s bottoms;
  3. Polyester knitted wick strip fabric: The fabric has distinct concavities and convexities, feels thick and plump, and has good elasticity and warmth. Mainly used for men’s and women’s tops, suits, windbreakers, children’s clothing and other fabrics;
  4. Polyester-covered cotton knitted fabric: The fabric is dyed for shirts, jackets and sportswear. The fabric is stiff and wrinkle-resistant, firm and wear-resistant, and the close-fitting side is hygroscopic and breathable, soft and comfortable;
  5. Artificial fur needle fabric: the fabric feels thick, soft and warm. According to different varieties, it is mainly used for coat fabrics, clothing linings, collars, hats, etc. Artificial fur is also woven by warp knitting;
  6. Velvet knitted fabric: The fabric feels soft, thick, firm and wear-resistant, with thick and towering fluff, and soft shade. Mainly used as outerwear fabric, collar or hat material, etc. It can also be made of warp knitting, for example: warp terry shearling fabric;
  7. Hong Kong-type knitted woolen wool: It not only has the smooth, glutinous, soft and bulky feel of cashmere fabric, but also has the characteristics of soft luster, good drape, no shrinkage and strong air permeability of silk fabric. Mainly used for spring, autumn and winter fashion fabrics.

Warp knitting

Synthetic filaments such as polyester, nylon, vinylon, and polypropylene are often used as raw materials, and are also woven from cotton, wool, silk, hemp, chemical fibers and their blended yarns. It has the advantages of good longitudinal dimensional stability, stiff fabric, small detachment, no curling, and good air permeability. However, its lateral extension, elasticity and softness are not as good as weft knitted fabrics.
There are mainly the following types:

  1. Polyester warp knitted fabric: the fabric surface is flat and firm, the color is bright, and it is divided into thick and thin. The thin type is mainly used as shirt and skirt fabric; the medium and thick type can be used for men’s and women’s coats, windbreakers, tops, suits, trousers and other fabrics;
  2. Warp knitted fleece fabric: mainly used for winter men’s and women’s coats, windbreakers, tops, trousers and other fabrics, the fabric has good drape, easy to wash, quick-dry, and no ironing, but static electricity accumulates during use, and it is easy to absorb dust;
  3. Warp knitted mesh fabric: The warp knitted mesh fabric is light in texture, good in elasticity and breathability, and feels smooth and soft. It is mainly used as a summer shirt fabric for men and women;
  4. Warp knitted velvet fabric: the surface fluff is thick and stands, the hand feels thick, plump, soft, elastic, and has good heat retention. It is mainly used for winter clothing and children’s clothing fabrics;
  5. Warp knitted terry fabric: This kind of fabric has a plump and thick hand, firm and thick cloth body, good elasticity, moisture absorption, warmth retention, stable terry structure, and good wearing performance.

What are the commonly used clothing fabrics?

Cotton-type fabric: refers to the fabric woven with cotton yarn or cotton and cotton-type chemical fiber blended yarn. It has good air permeability, good moisture absorption, and is comfortable to wear. It is a popular fabric with strong practicability. It can be divided into two categories: pure cotton products and cotton blends.

Hemp fabrics: Pure hemp fabrics woven from hemp fibers and fabrics blended or interwoven with hemp and other fibers are collectively referred to as hemp fabrics. The common characteristics of hemp fabrics are that they are hard and tough, rough and stiff, cool and comfortable, and have good hygroscopicity. They are ideal summer clothing fabrics. Hemp fabrics can be divided into pure spinning and blending.

Silk fabric: It is a high-grade variety in textiles. It mainly refers to the fabrics made of mulberry silk, tussah silk, rayon, and synthetic filaments as the main raw materials. It has the advantages of being thin, light, soft, smooth, elegant, gorgeous, and comfortable.

Wool-type fabrics: fabrics made of wool, rabbit hair, camel hair, and wool-type chemical fibers as the main raw materials, generally wool-based, are high-grade clothing fabrics throughout the year, with good elasticity, wrinkle resistance, and stiffness. , wear-resistant and wear-resistant, warm, comfortable and beautiful, pure color and other advantages, welcomed by consumers.

Chemical fiber fabrics: Chemical fiber fabrics are favored by people for their high fastness, good elasticity, stiffness, wear resistance, washability, and easy storage and collection. Purified fiber fabrics are fabrics woven from pure chemical fibers. Its characteristics are determined by the characteristics of its chemical fiber itself. Chemical fibers can be processed into a certain length according to different needs and woven into silk-like, cotton-like, linen-like, elastic wool-like, medium-length wool-like fabrics according to different processes.

Knitted clothing fabrics: It is made of one or several yarns that are continuously bent into circles along the weft or warp direction, and are interlocked with each other.


Special fabrics:

What are the characteristics of different types of fabrics?

The difference in raw materials, it can be divided into yarn-dyed cotton, yarn-dyed polyester-cotton, yarn-dyed medium and long imitation wool tweed, full wool tweed, wool-polyester tweed, wool-polyester-viscose three-in-one tweed, slub gauze, knot gauze, each There are many kinds of blended yarn-dyed fabrics, etc., and there are many yarn-dyed fabrics with silk and linen as raw materials.

The different weaving methods, it can be divided into plain yarn-dyed fabric, yarn-dyed poplin, yarn-dyed plaid, Oxford fabric, chambray, denim, khaki, twill, herringbone, gabardine, satin, small jacquard, Jacquard and more.

The different process characteristics of the front and rear, it can also be divided into the color warp and white weft cloth (oxford cloth, chambray, denim, labor cloth, etc.) Plaid, etc.) There are also various yarn-dyed plush fabrics formed by the drawing, raising, sanding, and milling of the subsequent process.

According to different manufacturing principles, it can be divided into knitted yarn-dyed fabric and woven yarn-dyed fabric. The above mentioned are all woven yarn-dyed fabrics. The basic principle of knitted yarn-dyed fabrics is to dye the yarn before weaving. Both warp knitting machines and weft knitting machines can weave yarn-dyed fabrics, but most of them are slivers. Lord, there is no way to make a lattice.

Cotton Fabric

Cotton is a general term for all kinds of cotton textiles. It is mostly used to make fashion, casual wear, underwear, and shirts. Its advantages are easy to keep warm, soft and close to the body, hygroscopic, breathable, and not easy to be allergic. Its disadvantage is that it is easy to shrink, wrinkle, has poor recovery, has poor gloss, and must be ironed frequently when wearing.

Cotton classification:

  • Pure cotton: As the name implies, it is all woven from cotton, which has the characteristics of warmth retention, moisture absorption, heat resistance, alkali resistance, hygiene, etc. Its shortcomings are that it is easy to shrink, wrinkle, and pilling. , must be ironed frequently when wearing.
  • Fine cotton: The correct term is “fine shuttle cotton”. Simply put, it is better woven and handled, and it is pure cotton. This type of fabric can prevent pilling to the greatest extent.
  • Polyester-cotton is a blend, which is relative to pure cotton. It is a blend of polyester and cotton, which is easier to pilling than “fine shuttle cotton”. However, because of the polyester component, the fabric is relatively pure cotton. Soft and not easy to wrinkle, but less hygroscopic than pure cotton.
  • Washed cotton: Washed cotton is made of cotton. After special treatment, the surface tone and luster of the fabric are softer, the hand feel is softer, and the slight wrinkle reflects a sense of old material. This kind of clothing has the advantages of not being deformed, not fading, and free of ironing. The surface of the better-washed cotton cloth has a uniform layer of plush, which is unique in style.
  • Ice cotton: Ice cotton is thin, breathable, and cool against summer. In layman’s terms, it is to add a coating to the cotton cloth. The color is mainly a single color, such as white, army green, light pink, light brown, etc. The ice cotton has the characteristics of breathability and coolness, and the hand feels smooth and soft. Cool feeling, there are natural folds on the surface, and it is not transparent when worn on the body. It is suitable for women to make dresses, cropped pants, shirts, etc. It has a unique style and is the best fabric for summer clothing. Pure ice cotton will not shrink!
  • Lycra cotton: Lycra is added to the cotton. Lycra (LYCRA) is a man-made elastic fiber exclusively invented and produced by DuPont, which can be freely stretched 4 to 7 times, and quickly restore its original length after the release of external force. It cannot be used alone but can be interwoven with any other man-made or natural fibers. It does not change the appearance of the fabric and is an invisible fiber that greatly improves the properties of the fabric. Its extraordinary stretch and recovery properties enhance all fabrics. Lycra-containing clothing not only wears comfortably and fits well, but also has a unique ability to recover from wrinkles, making it durable and not deformed.
  • Mesh cotton: mesh cotton is also pure cotton, but the weaving method is different from the general one. It is more sweat-absorbent and not easy to deform.
  • Mercerized cotton: The cotton raw materials used in mercerized cotton are relatively high-grade, and after a series of strict processing procedures, its products can be described as top-quality cotton, which not only retains the natural advantages of pure cotton, which is soft, comfortable, hygroscopic and breathable but also has many unique advantages: 1 3. The yarn strength increases, and it is not easy to break; 2. The gloss increases and the brightness is like silk; 3. The dyeing performance is improved, the color is bright, and the color is not easy to fade; 4. The breaking depth of the yarn decreases with the increase of tension, that is, it is not easy to pull Long and deformed.

linen Fabric

Linen is a kind of fabric made of hemp, flax, ramie, jute, sisal, abaca, and other hemp plant fibers. It is generally used to make casual clothes and work clothes and mostly used to make ordinary summer clothes. Its advantages are extremely high strength, moisture absorption, thermal conductivity, and good air permeability. Its disadvantage is that it is not very comfortable to wear, and the appearance is rough and blunt.

Silk Fabric

Silk is a general term for various silk fabrics woven from silk as raw materials. Like cotton, it comes in many varieties with different personalities. It can be used to make all kinds of clothing, especially women’s clothing. Its strengths are thin, fit, soft, smooth, breathable, colorful, lustrous, elegant, and comfortable to wear. Its shortcomings are that it is easy to wrinkle, easy to suck, not strong enough, and fades quickly.

Woolen Fabric

Wool, also known as wool, is a general term for fabrics woven from various types of wool and cashmere. It is usually suitable for making formal and high-end clothing such as dresses, suits, and coats. Its advantages are wrinkle-resistant and wear-resistant, soft to the touch, elegant and crisp, elastic and warm. Its disadvantage is mainly that it is difficult to wash, and it is not suitable for making summer clothes.

leather Fabric

Leather is a tanned animal fur fabric. It is mostly used to make fashion and winter clothes. Leather classification: Leather includes genuine leather, regenerated leather, and artificial leather. It is mostly used to make fashion and winter clothes.

  • Leather: It can be divided into two categories: one is leather, that is, leather that has been dehaired. The second is fur, which is treated leather with fur. Its advantage is that it is light and warm, elegant and luxurious. Its disadvantage is that it is expensive and requires high storage and nursing, so it should not be popularized.
  • Regenerated leather: Regenerated leather is made by crushing the leather and dermis scraps of various animals, and then processing chemical raw materials. Its surface processing technology is the same as that of shaving leather and embossed leather. Its characteristics are that the edges of the leather are neat, the utilization rate is high, and the price is cheap; but the leather body is generally thicker and has poor strength, and is only suitable for making cheap briefcases and trolley bags. , club covers and other stereotyped craft products and cheap belts are generally not used to make clothing.
  • Artificial leather is also called imitation leather or rubber material. It has the characteristics of a wide variety of colors, good waterproof performance, neat edges, high utilization rate, and cheaper price than real leather, but most artificial leather, its feel and elasticity cannot reach the effect of real leather; However, with the continuous improvement and improvement of the production process, good artificial leather has reached or even exceeded the effect of genuine leather. Of course, the price is also comparable.

Chemical Fiber

Chemical fiber is the abbreviation of chemical fiber. It is a textile made of fibers using polymer compounds as raw materials. Usually, it is divided into two categories: artificial fibers and synthetic fibers. Their common advantages are vibrant colors, soft textures, crisp drape, and a smooth, comfortable fit. Their disadvantages are poor wear resistance, heat resistance, hygroscopicity and air permeability, ease to deform when heated, and ease to generate static electricity.


Blending is a fabric made by mixing natural fibers and chemical fibers in a certain proportion, which can be used to make various garments. Its advantage is that it not only absorbs the advantages of cotton, hemp, silk, wool, and chemical fibers, but also avoids their respective shortcomings as much as possible, and is relatively cheap in value, so it is very popular.

Knitted Fabric

Yarn-dyed fabric A fabric woven from dyed yarn. The dyeing of yarn is generally divided into two ways:

  • Colored spinning: Before spinning, the raw material is lustrous, such as dyed cotton, or yarn made of colored cotton. This process is mostly used for wool spinning and cotton spinning, including blended yarns.

Dyeing yarn: The blank yarn is dyed after rinsing. Then use colored yarn to weave, and the finished product is called yarn-dyed cloth.

Generally speaking, the yarn-dyed fabric refers to the fabric woven by the shuttle loom, but the knitting machine can also make the yarn-dyed knitted fabric.

Composition and properties of different fabrics

Fiber classification:

  1. Plant fiber: cotton, linen
  2. Animal fibers: silk, wool
  3. Man-made fibers (recycled): viscose, soybean fiber, glass fiber, metal fiber
  4. Synthetic fibers: polyester, nylon, nitrile, vitamin, propylene, ammonia, chlorine (fiber)

Yarn classification:

  1. Pure cotton yarn: carded/semi-fine/combed (high uniformity, high strength, easy to color)
  2. Chemical fiber yarn: polyester, nitrile, viscose, vinyl yarn
  3. Blended yarn: T/C, C/C, T/R
  4. Ply yarn: yarn made of two or more yarns twisted together
  5. Filament: divided into monofilament and multifilament
  6. Textured yarn: high-elastic nylon yarn, low-elastic polyester yarn, acrylic bulked yarn
  7. Fancy yarn: slub yarn, spiral small flower, seersucker, magic yarn

Fabric identification method

The easy way to identify the composition of clothing fabrics is the combustion method. The method is to draw a yarn containing warp and weft yarns at the seam of the garment, ignite it with fire, observe the state of the burning flame, smell the smell of the yarn after burning, and see the residue after burning to judge. Whether it is consistent with the fabric composition marked on the clothing durability label to identify the authenticity of the fabric composition.

  1. Cotton fiber and hemp fiber Cotton fiber and hemp fiber are both flammable when they are close to the flame, burning rapidly, the flame is yellow, and blue smoke is emitted. The difference between the odors emitted by the two during combustion and the ashes after burning is that the burning of cotton gives off the smell of paper, and the burning of hemp gives off the smell of plant ash; after burning, cotton has very little powder ash, which is black or gray, while hemp produces a small amount of off-white powder ash.
  2. Wool fiber and silk The wool emits smoke when exposed to fire, foams when burned, the burning speed is slow, and the burnt smell of burning hair is emitted. When the silk is exposed to fire, it shrinks into a ball, and the burning speed is slow, accompanied by a sizzling sound, exuding a burning smell of hair, and after burning, it forms black-brown spherical ashes, which are broken when twisted by hand.
  3. The scientific name of nylon and polyester nylon is polyamide fiber. Near the flame, it quickly curls and melts into a white gelatinous shape. It melts and drips and foams in the flame. There is no flame when burning. The light brown melt was not easily ground after cooling. The scientific name of polyester is polyester fiber. It is easy to ignite, and it melts near the flame. When burning, it melts and emits black smoke. It has a yellow flame and emits a fragrant smell.
  4. The scientific name of acrylic fiber and polypropylene acrylic fiber is polyacrylonitrile fiber, which softens and shrinks near fire, emits black smoke after fire, and the flame turns white. , fragile when twisted by hand. The scientific name of polypropylene fiber is polypropylene fiber. It melts near the flame and is flammable. It burns slowly and emits black smoke from the fire. The upper end of the flame is yellow and the lower end is blue. broken.
  5. The scientific name of vinylon and vinyl is polyvinyl formal fiber, which is not easy to ignite, melts and shrinks near the flame, and there is a little flame at the top when burning. When the fibers are melted into a jelly-like flame, the flame becomes larger, with thick black smoke and a bitter smell. , after burning, black bead-like particles remain, which can be crushed with fingers. The scientific name of polyvinyl chloride fiber is polyvinyl chloride fiber. It is difficult to burn, and it will be extinguished immediately after leaving the fire. The flame is yellow, and the lower end is green and white smoke.
  6. The scientific name of spandex and fluorine spandex is polyurethane fiber. It burns while melting near the fire. When burning, the flame is blue. When it leaves the fire, it continues to melt and burn, giving off a special pungent odor. After burning, the ashes are soft and fluffy black. Ash. The scientific name of fluorine is polytetrafluoroethylene fiber, which is called fluorite fiber by the ISO organization. It only melts near the flame, is difficult to ignite, and does not burn. The edge flame is blue-green carbonized, melted and decomposed, the gas is poisonous, and the melt is hard and round black. beads. Fluorocarbon fibers are commonly used in the textile industry to make high-performance sewing threads.
  7. Viscose fiber and cuproammonium fiber Viscose fiber is flammable burns very fast, the flame is yellow, the smell of hot paper is dissipated, the ashes are less after burning, and it is smooth, twisted band-shaped light gray or gray-white fine powder. Copper ammonium fiber, commonly known as tiger kapok, burns near the flame, the burning speed is fast, the flame is yellow, the ester acid smell is emitted, and there is very little ash after burning, only a small amount of gray-black ash.

Sensory method

  1. Pure cotton cloth: the cloth surface has a soft luster, soft hand feeling, poor elasticity, and is easy to wrinkle. Pinch the fabric tightly with your hands and release it, there are obvious creases, and the creases are not easy to return to their original shape. Take out a few warp and weft yarns from the edge of the fabric and twist them apart to see that the fibers are of different lengths.
  1. Viscose cotton cloth (including rayon and fiber-rich cloth): the surface of the cloth is soft and bright, with bright colors, smooth and clean, soft to the touch and poor elasticity. After pinching the fabric tightly with your hands, you can see obvious creases, and the creases are not easy to return to their original shape.
  2. Polyester cotton cloth: brighter than pure cotton cloth, the cloth surface is smooth, and clean without yarn ends or impurities. The hand feels smooth and stiff, and the elasticity is better than that of pure cotton. When you squeeze the fabric tightly with your hand and release it, the crease is not obvious and it is easy to return to its original state.
  3. Pure wool worsted woolen: The surface of the fabric is smooth and clean, and the texture is fine and clear. The luster is soft and natural, and the color is pure. Soft and elastic to the touch. Pinch the fabric with your hands to loosen it, the crease is not obvious, and it can quickly return to its original state. Most of the yarn counts are double strands.
  4. Pure wool woolen: The surface is plump and the texture is tight and thick. There is fine fluff on the surface, and the texture is generally not revealed. It feels warm, plump, and elastic. The yarn is mostly coarse single yarn.
  5. Wool polyester blended woolen: The appearance has the style of pure wool fabric. The texture of the woolen surface is clean, flat and smooth, the hand feeling is not as soft as pure wool fabrics, it has a stiff and rough feeling, and its elasticity exceeds that of full wool and wool viscose. Squeeze the fabric with your hands and release it, and the crease quickly returns to its original shape.
  6. Maoqing blended woolen: Most of them are worsted. The fur is strong, wool-like and warm. Not as elastic as wool.
  7. Woolen brocade blended wool: smooth surface, strong wool feel, wax-like luster in appearance, and a firm hand. After pinching the fabric with your hand, release it, there are obvious creases, and it can slowly return to its original state.
  8. Real silk: The silk surface is smooth and clean, the luster is soft, and the color is bright and pure. It feels smooth, soft, and looks light and airy. Under dry conditions, the silk surface can be pulled by hand, and there is a “silk sound” when it is torn.
  9. Viscose silk fabric (human silk): The silk surface is bright but not soft, bright in color, smooth in hand, soft and strong in drape, but not as light and elegant as real silk. After pinching the silk surface, release it, there are creases, and the recovery is slow. The sound is hoarse when tearing. When the warp and weft yarns are wet with water, they are easily broken.

Combustion identification

List of characteristics of several commonly used fibers when burning:

Cotton: Close to the flame, it will not shrink or melt. In contact with the flame, it burns rapidly, the flame is orange-yellow, and there is blue smoke. Leave the flame and keep burning. The burning paper smells fewer ashes and is linear. The ash powder is soft, light gray, and easy to powder when touched by hand.

Linen: Same as above, with little ash, light gray, or off-white, easy to powder when touched by hand.

Silk: Close to the flame, the curl does not melt. In contact with flame, burn slowly. Leave the flame and go out on its own. The flame is orange and small. The smell of burning feathers or burning hair is dark brown balls, easily powdery to the touch.

Wool: Close to the flame, the curl does not melt. Contact with flame, smoke, and burn with bubbles. Leave the flame and keep burning. Sometimes it goes out on its own, and the flame is orange. The smell of burning feathers or burning hair is many ashes, forming shiny and amorphous black lumps, which are easy to be ash-like when touched by hand

Viscose: Close to the flame, burning quickly, orange flame, burning paper smell, little ash, dark gray or light gray

Polyester: Approaching the flame, it shrinks first and then melts. In contact with flame, it melts and burns. Leave the flame and keep burning. The flame is yellow-white, bright, with a linear black smoke at the top. Special aroma, dark brown indeterminate lumps or small balls, can be crushed with fingers.

Fiber identification

The combustion method is one of the simple and commonly used methods to identify fibers. It uses the different combustion characteristics of various fibers to identify fiber types. But only for pure textiles and interwoven products. Not applicable to new blended products, core-spun yarn products, and products that have undergone fire-resistant finishing.

  • Cotton: It burns rapidly in the flame and emits gray-white smoke;
  • Linen: burns rapidly in flames, giving off white smoke;
  • Wool: Gradually burn, the smell of hair, after burning, there is crunchy black ash;
  • Polyester: first melt and then burn, and there will be glassy black-brown hard balls after burning;
  • Viscose: Low strength, hardens after being put into water.

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